Here we will discuss, the difference between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer. The difference is categorized on the factors such as the sort of network used, location of installation, use either for low voltages or higher voltages., the numerous evaluations in which the power and the supply transformers can be found on the market.
In addition to this, the designing efficacy as well as the designing of this center, the types of losses occurring from the transformer, their working requirements, and various software are also important parameters.
1. Main differences
- Power transformers are used in transmitting system of higher voltages for step-up and measure down software (400 kV, 200 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV, 33kV) and are generally rated above 200MVA.
- Distribution transformers are used for lower voltage distribution networks as a means to end user connectivity. (11kV, 6.6 kV, 3.3 kV, 440V, 230V) and are usually ranked less than 200 MVA.
2. Transformer Size / Insulation Level:
- Power transformer is utilized for its transmission purpose in heavy load, high voltage greater than 33 KV & 100 percent efficiency. It also having a large in size as compare to distribution transformer, it utilized in generating channel and Transmission substation .high insulation amount.
- Distribution transformer is employed for the supply of electric energy at low voltage as significantly less than 33KV in industrial function and 440v-220v in national intent. It work at low efficacy at 50-70%, small size, easy in setup, with low magnetic losses & it isn’t always fully loaded.
3. Iron Losses and Copper Losses
- Power Transformers are employed in Transmission network so they do not directly connect to the consumers, therefore load changes are less. These are loaded fully during 24 hr’s a day, therefore Cu declines & Fe losses takes place throughout day that the specific fat i.e. (iron pounds )/(cu weight) is very less.
The typical loads are nearer to full loaded or complete load and those are designed in such a way that highest efficiency at full load condition. These are independent of period so in calculating the efficacy only power foundation is enough.
Power Transformers are used in Distribution Network so right joined to the consumer so load changes are very large. These are not loaded entirely at all time therefore iron losses occurs 24hr a day and cu declines happens based on loading cycle. The particular weight is much more i.e. (iron weight)/(cu weight).average heaps are approximately just 75% of full load and those are created in such a way that max efficacy occurs at 75% of total load.
As these are time dependent the all day efficiency is defined in order to calculate the efficiency.
Power transformers are used for transmission as a measure up apparatus so that the I2r loss may be minimized for a given energy flow. These transformers are made to use the heart to max and will function very much close to the knee stage of B-H curve (marginally above the knee point worth ).This brings the bulk of the heart hugely.
Naturally these transformers have the paired iron declines and copper losses in peak load (i.e. the highest efficiency point where both losses match).
- Distribution transformers clearly cannot be designed for it. Hence the all-day-efficiency comes into picture while designing it. It depends on the normal load cycle for which it must supply. Definitely Core layout is going to be done to care for peak load and in addition to all-day-efficiency. It is a bargain between these two points.
Power transformer generally functioned at full load. Consequently, it is designed for example copper losses are nominal. However, a distribution transformer is consistently online and functioned in lots less than full load for a lot of the time. Consequently, it’s designed such that heart losses are minimum.
Back in Power Transformer the regular density is higher than the distribution transformer.
4. Maximum Efficiency
The most important difference between distribution and power transformer is supply transformer is designed for optimum efficiency at 60 percent to 70 percent load as generally does not function at full load all the time. Its load is dependent upon supply requirement. Whereas electricity transformer is designed for optimum performance at 100% load because it consistently runs at 100 percent load being close to creating channel.
Distribution Transformer is utilized in the supply level where voltages are normally reduced .The secondary voltage is practically always the voltage delivered to the end user. Due to voltage drop constraints, it’s ordinarily not feasible to provide that voltage over distances.
Consequently, most distribution methods tend to involve many ‘clusters’ of lots fed from supply transformers, which then implies that the thermal rating of distribution transformers does not need to be quite large to encourage the loads they have to function.
All day efficiency = (Output in KWhr) / (Input in KWhr) in 24 hrs which is always less than power efficiency.