How is high static water pressure avoided in municipal water systems?

All QuestionsHow is high static water pressure avoided in municipal water systems?
How is high static water pressure avoided in municipal water systems?John Gerald asked 4 months ago
Most cities get their water supply from local sources (springs, rivers, lakes), so the pressure in the system is never more than what the pumps produce.
But some cities get their water from other places, usually from a much higher altitude.
For example, Portland Oregon gets its water from the Bull Run Watershed, which is more than a kilometer higher than the city.
Portland water system | Portland, Oregon
With this difference in altitude, if there is no large flow, the pressure of the static water in the city pipes will be more than 100 atm, which is clearly not possible.
How is water pressure prevented from rising catastrophically?

1 Answers
How is high static water pressure avoided in municipal water systems?Niels Toft answered 4 months ago

Where I live, the pressure arises due to the elevation of reservoirs/lakes on the mountains near the glaciers…
The only thing that has been done is use pressure relief valves that control the pressure and some are designed to drive sample turbines to produce electricity – there are research papers on the subject.

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