A microprocessor generally does not have RAM, ROM, and IO pins. Its pins are usually used as interface buses with peripheral devices such as RAM, ROM, serial ports, digital and analog input. It is expandable at the board level because of this.
The microcontroller is “all in one”, the processor, RAM, IO are all on one chip, as such you cannot (say) increase the amount of RAM available or the number of I/O ports. The control bus is internal and not available to the panel designer.
This means that the microprocessor is generally capable of being included in larger general purpose applications than the microcontroller. The microcontroller is usually used for more customized applications.
All these are very general statements. There are slides available that blur the boundaries.
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